Writing a theoretical paper
that of individual Seattle neighborhoods ( www. Los Angeles, CA: sage, 2017; Reyes, Victoria. You could organize the details of the case into paragraphs and start each paragraph with an analytical sentence about how the theory relates to different andrew vanwyngarden wesleyan essay aspects of the case. Finally, remember that librarian reference desks are expert on data sources, and that you can call, email, or visit in person to ask about what data is available on your particular topic. Each class of problem is addressed below, followed by some pointers for choosing "cases or deciding upon the empirical phenomenon to which you will apply the theoretical perspective or argument (including where to find data). A common problem seen in theory application assignments is failing to substantiate claims, or making a statement that is not backed up with evidence or details proof. Research Methods Knowledge Base. whereas others specify the case for you (e.g., ask you to apply conflict theory to explain some aspect of globalization described in an article). Inside Higher Education; Trochim, William.K.
Using Evidence to Make Your Argument. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. Professors often prefer that you avoid examples used by the theorist themselves, those used in lectures and sections, and those that are extremely obvious. Demystifying the Journal Article.
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The reader is left wondering whether a given statement represents the view of the theorist, the student, or an author who wrote about the case. . This latter element is particularly important if the theory is relatively unknown or it is borrowed from another discipline. Return to Reading 2 A cautionary note about critiquing theories: no social theory explains all cases, so avoid claiming that a single case "disproves" a theory, or that a single case "proves" a theory correct. For example, you can get data from the US census, including for particular neighborhoods, from a number of cites. The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your course readings summarized and analyzed in the next section of your paper and the gaps in the research that emerge from the review process. Students often go astray here by latching onto an inconsequential or less important part of the theory reading, showing the relationship to their case, and then assuming they have fully applied the theory. For example, you can search The New York Times and get full-text online for every single issue from 1851 through today! . I could choose instead to test Instrumentalist or Circumstantialists models developed among ethnic conflict theorists that rely upon socio-economic-political factors to explain individual-state relations and to apply this theoretical model to periods of war between nations. Alabama State University; Conceptual Framework: What Do You Think is Going On? Later, your discussion of methodology should be linked back to this theoretical framework. For example, you can ask whether your case fits the theory's assumptions and scope conditions. . Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research.
As noted in the example above, there will likely be several concepts, theories, or models that can be used to help develop a framework for understanding the research problem. Return to Reading 3 By empirical evidence, we mean data on social phenomena, derived from scientific observation or experiment. . Reality is never accurately represented in such a simplistic way; if you imply that it can be, you fundamentally distort a reader's ability to understand the findings that emerge. This includes making your own argument about your case, not using an argument you find in a scholarly article.
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