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as a means of relieving surplus rural labour, have been well documented and researched. (1998) The Hukou system and rural-urban migration in China: Processes and changes, The Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Working Paper, University of Washington. Fawcett, New York: Population Council, 1979. Apart from that, a large proportion of migrants in big cities are self-employed. But this system collapsed in the 1980s when communes were dismantled and the new individual family-based Household Responsibility System was adopted. Community-based family panning work also offers a new arena to improve migrants health status, particularly reproductive health. An incomplete estimate reported 12,000 work-related accidents and more than 80 deaths a year in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, most of the victims being migrants (cited in Tan, : 145). On the surface this problem does not seem particularly difficult to tackle since it is relatively easy for the authorities to inspect working conditions and to enforce its improvement. Yang also reviewed 15 studies on HIV in different parts of China and found that on average.4 per cent of HIV positive cases were migrants (see Appendix 2). Second, the residential community forms an important arena for transmitting information and improving awareness.
This made them a particularly dangerous potential source of sars infection. The emerging civil society in China is another important means of empowering migrants. Third, NGOs are becoming more and more important in delivering services, including training, to migrants.
On the contrary, realising the difficulties in changing formal institutions urges us to refocus our work on something more attainable in the short term. There are also a series of relevant regulations in place. Transport Bureaux and Rail Bureaux in some places, particularly in Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, have launched information campaigns for aids prevention targeting truck drivers as well as passengers. 30 References Baozhang Ketizu (China Social Security System Reform Research Team, Yiwu Investigation Group Chengshi pingkun de shenceng yuanyin: jiuye yu baozhang de erlv beifan (The root cause of urban poverty: The paradox between employment and social security Shenhui Zhengce PingLun (Social Policy Review April. As a result, the health security management bureau may have to manage the medical fund along with different modes simultaneously (Gong, 2003). Basically, including migrants in the medical care system does not fit into the governments immediate goals in reforming the system. Population and Social Sciences Department, National Statistic Bureau of China 2001, Quanguo kuasheng liudong renkou chaoguo 4000 wan (Trans-provincial floating population exceeds 40 million. The lack of any effective medical care system in the rural area makes it literally impossible to transfer individual accounts from urban to rural. In practice, a variety of ways have been explored to provide health education to migrants. For example, 17,817 persons withdrew their medical care accounts in Changan Town, Dongguan City alone in the first three quarters of 2001, presumably most being migrants. Asian metacentre FOR population AND sustainable development analysis. (2003) Dagongzhe gudu cheng bing (Migrants are so lonely to be sick Wenzhou Wanbao (Wenzhou Evening 24 March,.
A Health Security Management Bureau is only responsible for the enterprises and their workers within the county where that bureau is located. 20 The unbalanced relationship between the government, employer and migrant worker As demonstrated earlier, work-related illness constitutes the immediate health threat for migrant workers. Freedman, Maurice The growth of a plural society in Malaya, Pacific Affairs, 33(2 158168, Summer 1960.